Adygeya (other spellings Adygea, Adyge, Adyghea) Republic is a federal subject of the Russian Federation, part of Southern Federal District.
The administrative center of the region is Maykop. The republic is an enclave within Krasnodar Krai.
Adygeya Republic has a population of about 444,000 (2012) on the territory of 7,792 sq. km.
The territory of present Adygeya region was inhabited from ancient times. Abadzehskaya Paleolithic site is located in Maykop district, there are also a lot of archaeological sites of Bronze and Iron Ages. Maykop archaeological culture is well known.
Unique items were found during an excavation of hills near the village of Ulyap, Krasnogvardeysky district. Most of the precious items excavated while Adygeya was a part of Krasnodar region also known as “Scythian gold” or “Kuban gold” are located outside Adygeya for the time being.
The indigenous Adyg population’s ancestors are considered to be ancient Meots, Sinds, Aheys, Zikhs, Kasogs and Kerkets residing in the region. Most of the Adygs migrated to the Osman Empire after the Crimean War, main events of which took place in this part of Caucasus in 1859-1864. The rest of Adygs were settled on lowlands on the left bank of the Kuban River.
Adygeya Republic is located in the northern foothills of Caucasus Mountains. The northern part of the region consists mainly of plains while the southern part has mountains.
Various forests cover about half of the republic territory. The main river of the region is the Kuban River. Major mountains are Chugush (3,238 m) and Fisht (2,868 m).
The Republic of Adygea is located in the south-west of the Russian Federation, on the left bank of the Kuban, occupies the central part of the Prikubanskaya Sloping (Zakuban) Plain and the northern slopes of the North-West Caucasus.
The main territory of the republic is located in the basin of the two main tributaries of the Kuban – Laba, and Belaya and lies between parallels 44 ° and 45 ° N, the 45th parallel crosses the Krasnodar reservoir and the northern part of the Prikubanskaya Plain, the 44th passes through mountainous areas near the lake. Psenodah and pos. Guzeripl, the 40th meridian, almost in the middle, crosses the republic from north to south, passing through the central part of the Lagonaki Plateau, just west of Maykop and Art. Giaginskaya.
Adygea borders with Krasnoarmeysky, Dinskiy, Ust-Labinsk, Kurganinsky districts of the Krasnodar Territory and the city of Krasnodar – in the north, with the Adlersky, Lazarevsky, Khostinsky districts of Big Sochi – in the south, with the Apsheronsky, Belorechensky, Seversky districts and with the territory, under the administration of Goryachy Klyuch is in the west and Masty, Labinsk and Kurganinsky districts in the east. The area of Adygea is 7,790 sq. Km., The length of the borders is 900 km, the length of the territory of the republic from north to south is 208 km, from west to east is 165 km, and 441,2 thousand people live in it. The republic consists of 7 administrative districts: Giaginsky, Koshekhablsky, Shovgenovsky, Krasnogvardeisky, Maikop, Takhtamukaysky, Teuchezhsky. Adygea is part of the Southern Federal District. The position of Adygea in the south of Russia, in the foothills and mountains of the Caucasus, in the interfluve of large rivers is favorable for the development of the territory and convenient for relations with its neighbors.
Main natural resources of Adygeya are natural gas and oil. Among the other resources are gold, silver, iron, tungsten and rich soil.
Main agriculture products of the region are grain and sunflowers. Sheep breeding is also well developed. Among the most developed industries are food, timber, paper, and metal-working. There are several railways going through Adygeya Republic territory.
The territory of Adygeya Republic is a region of mixed tourism. It possesses considerable resources for hunting. The conditions here are favorable for sports routes as well as cognitive ones.
The territory if full of natural objects, a lot of which are of large tourist value. The government of the Republic makes a lot of efforts to attract tourists to the region and to form its positive image.
Several districts protected by the government are created in Adygeya. These are: Caucasian State Biosphere Reserve located in the Republic of Adygeya and Krasnodar region, a number of unique natural sites and National Park “Gornaya (Mountainous) Adygeya”.
Mountainous hiking and equestrian routes are very popular. Camping areas of the region can host 1,500 tourists.